[:en][vc_row][vc_column][vc_column_text]Traceability is about connecting the dots to determine that the web of activities for a functional safety project have followed the proper paths. Think of it like cheating at hide-n-seek; it provides a shortcut to find all those requirements and design parts that are hidden in your specification documents. If you do it right, there is nothing that can hide because the cross-references will point you in the right direction.
Traceability is a SIL verification step that is broadly bi-directional, but items at the end of the line, like the highest level product requirements or the lowest level implementation, will be uni-directional. IEC 61508 addresses the bi-directional nature of traceability:
At the very least for SIL 2, you need traceability between safety requirements and validation tests… and this should be auditable for both forward and backward traceability. Traceability can extend beyond the requirements and validation activities. For SIL 3, you need to go further into the traceability of software safety requirements and the forward (to design and test plans) and backward (to system safety requirements) connections.
Separate traceability lists or matrices are not required, but you shouldn’t need to jump through hoops to determine the tests associated with a requirement or the requirements that a test is validating. A table at the end of a test plan or SRS can work well, or a spreadsheet can be created with the same intent. Many requirements management and test management tools have built-in traceability aids. They often allow export of traceability information to a report. The best advice I can give is to include traceability in the requirements and design review checklists so you don’t forget about it.
And don’t forget about traceability when you make modifications. One of the benefits to creating the traceability matrices is that you can review and update them when making system, hardware, or software changes. This will help determine the depth and breadth of the proposed change and connect the dots between what exists and what you have planned, so also be sure to include traceability in your impact analysis checklist.[/vc_column_text][/vc_column][/vc_row][:zh][vc_row][vc_column][vc_column_text]No! They are not Inherently Safe!
A collaborative robot is intended to work “collaboratively” with a person. i.e. share a common workspace. It is force and speed limited by design to minimize any potential hazard. Collaborative robots fit the application where the task cannot be easily or cost effectively automated. They are easy to deploy, program and repurpose. Collaborative robots are new to everyone including the standards agencies.
A hazard and risk assessment is required that assesses the robot and the environment that it is deployed in. Just as any other robot, things such as collisions, speed, type of end effector and worksite need to be evaluated. Collaborative robots have their own sorts of collisions and hazards. They may not be as severe, but they still exist.
This all comes down to risk and the amount of risk that you are willing to accept! The diagram below shows the high-level steps for doing a Hazard and Risk Assessment. When following the steps, if you assess the risk and find it to be acceptable (your companies acceptable risk norms) then you are done. No need to add any risk reduction.
The next best approach is to determine if protective measures other than a Safety Function can reduce the risk to an acceptable level. If not, then you must assign a SIL and implement a safety function that will provide the required risk reduction.
exida can effectively train your team to perform machine hazard and risk assessments to identify all possible hazards and estimate the risk for each hazard. Specifically, exida coaches you through the process of evaluating the risk, developing and implementing risk reduction options. exida can also educate your team in multiple approaches to SIL target selection. These are just some of the things exida does to ensure you are on the right path![/vc_column_text][/vc_column][/vc_row] [:]